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Are you curious to know how driver less car works or how Siri text your friend to tell them you’re running late, find a table for three in London or call your dad at work. All these are possible with Artificial Intelligence? So let’s start Introduction To Artificial Intelligence article.
|Introduction To Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence is one of the most hot topic of computer world and it is getting so much attention today. It is ready to create a new revolution in the world by making intelligent machines.The Artificial Intelligence is now all around us. It is currently working with a variety of sub-fields, ranging from general to specific, such as self-driving cars, playing chess, proving theorems, playing music, Painting, etc.
So in Introduction To Artificial Intelligence, you will know the following topics of AI –
- What is AI ?
- What is the role of AI
- History of AI
- Types of AI and many more
So let’s jump into the world of AI and grab some valuable information of AI.
A Brief Introduction To Artificial Intelligence
So, in your mind the first question is arising that what is AI. So in this section you will know what really AI is.
What is AI ?
What Is Intelligence ?
- Intelligence is defined as general cognitive problem-solving skills.
- A mental ability involved in reasoning, perceiving relationships and analogies, calculating, learning quickly… etc.
- Intelligence is the ability to learn and solve problems
Artificial Intelligence is composed of two words Artificial and Intelligence, where Artificial defines “man-made“ and intelligence defines “thinking power“, hence AI means “a man-made thinking power.“
“Artificial Intelligence is an approach to make a computer, a robot, or a product to think how smart human think. AI is a study of how human brain think, learn, decide and work, when it tries to solve problems.”
The aim of AI is to improve computer functions which are related to human knowledge, for example, reasoning, learning, and problem-solving.
History Of AI
Artificial Intelligence is not a new word and not a new technology for researchers. This technology is much older than you would imagine. Even there are the myths of Mechanical men in Ancient Greek and Egyptian Myths.
- The term artificial intelligence was first coined by John McCarthy in 1956 when he held the first academic conference on the subject.
- But the journey to understand if machines can truly think began much before that.
- In Vannevar Bush’s seminal work As We May Think [Bush45] he proposed a system which amplifies people’s own knowledge and understanding.
- Five years later Alan Turing wrote a paper on the notion of machines being able to simulate human beings and the ability to do intelligent things, such as play Chess [Turing50]
Need for Artificial Intelligence
In this section, you will learn why we need Artificial Intelligence. Here is a list that shows the importance of AI.
- With the help of AI, you can build such Robots which can work in an environment where survival of humans can be at risk.
- With the help of AI, you can also create such software or devices which can solve real-world problems very easily and with accuracy such as health issues, marketing, traffic issues, etc.
- You can create expert systems which exhibit intelligent behavior with the capability to learn, demonstrate, explain and advice its users.
- With the help of AI, you can create your personal virtual Assistant, such as Cortana, Google Assistant, Siri, etc.
Types Of AI
We can categorize AI in two category, which are based on capabilities and based on functionally of AI. So let’s see types of AI in a detail.
Based On Capabilities
Weak AI / Narrow AI
- Weak AI is a type of AI which is able to perform a dedicated task with intelligence.
- It cannot perform beyond its field or limitations, as it is only trained for one specific task.
- Apple Siri is a good example of Weak AI.
- Super AI is the type of Artificial Intelligence in which the capability of computers will surpass human beings.
- Super AI is currently a hypothetical situation as depicted in movies and science fiction books, where machines have taken over the world.
- General AI is a type of AI in which AI agent has ability to learn, perceive, understand, and function completely like a human being.
- Currently, there is no such system exist which could come under general AI and can perform any task as perfect as a human.
Based On Functionality
- Reactive Machines are the oldest forms of AI systems that have extremely limited capability.
- This means such machines cannot use previously gained experiences to inform their present actions, i.e., these machines do not have the ability to “learn.”
- IBM’s Deep Blue is a popular reactive machines AI.
- Limited Memory AI is capable of learning from historical data to make decisions.
- Almost all present-day AI applications, such as chat-bots, virtual assistants and self-driving vehicles are example of Limited Memory AI.
- The Theory Of Mind AI is a more advanced type of Artificial Intelligence.
- These types of AI can understand human emotions, people, beliefs, and be able to interact socially like humans.
- Theory of mind AI is the next level of AI and it has not yet been fully developed but researchers are currently engaged in innovating them.
- This type of AI will not only be able to understand and evoke emotions in those it interacts with, but also have emotions, needs, beliefs, and potentially desires of its own.
- Self-Aware AI does not exist in reality still and it is a hypothetical concept.
Application Of AI
- Expert Systems are the Machine or software that provide explanation and advice to the users.
- Now a days AI healthcare industry is adopting AI to make a better and faster diagnosis than humans.
- AI can help doctors with diagnoses and can inform when patients are worsening so that medical help can reach to the patient before hospitalization.
- AI plays important role in gaming because it helps machine to think of large number of possible positions based on deep knowledge in strategic games.
- Chess, river crossing, N-queens problems etc are the popular games where AI is applied.
- Interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans.
- There are some AI based speech recognition systems have ability to hear and express as sentences and understand their meanings while a person talks to it. For example Siri and Google assistant.
- Robots have proven effective in jobs that are very repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse in concentration and other jobs which humans may find degrading.
Advantages Of AI
Here is a list of advantages of AI-
- Useful for risky areas – Some areas are very risky where human can’t work easily. In such cases AI play a important role, for example – defusing a bomb, exploring the ocean floor etc.
- High Speed – AI system have very high speed as well as fast decision-making power so that, they can take decisions faster than a human and carry out actions quicker.
- Available 24×7 – Using AI we can make machines work 24×7 without any breaks and they don’t even get bored unlike humans.
- Digital Assistant – Highly advanced organizations and many websites use digital assistant to provide things that user want and this way they saves the need of human resource.
- Day-To-Day Applications – Apple’s Siri, Windows Cortana, Google’s OK Google are frequently used by peoples to ease their daily work for example- searching a location,making a phone call, replying to a mail etc.
- High Accuracy with less errors – With AI, the decisions are taken from the previously gathered information applying certain set of algorithms. So errors are reduced and the chance of reaching accuracy with a greater degree of precision is a possibility.
Disadvantages Of AI
- No Emotions – There is no doubt AI machines are excellent but in the case of emotions and feelings then they are zero. That’s why it cannot make any kind of emotional attachment with human, and this becomes sometime very miserable for users.
- High Creation’s Costs- AI machines are very complex machines and hardware/software needs to get updated with time to meet the latest requirements. That’s the costs of creating AI is very high.
- Making Humans Lazy – Everyday new AI devices are developing and humans are becoming lazy because these applications are automating the majority of the human’s work. People are getting more dependent on devices and hence they are losing their mental capabilities.
- Unemployment – As AI is replacing the majority of the repetitive tasks and other works with robots, human interference is becoming less which will cause a major problem in the employment standards.
- Can’t think out of the box – Machines can perform only those tasks which they are designed or programmed to do, anything out of that they tend to crash or give irrelevant outputs which could be a major backdrop.